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Titanium, like other metals, can be shaped, formed, and strengthened through deformation processes. This chapter describes the structural changes that occur in titanium during deformation and how they can be controlled. It discusses the role of slip, dislocations, and twinning, the effect of grain size and crystal orientation, the concept of texture strengthening, and the principles of strain hardening and superplasticity. It also discusses the effect of annealing and the difference between recrystallization and neocrystallization processes.

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Deformation and Recrystallization of Titanium and Its Alloys, Titanium: Physical Metallurgy, Processing, and Applications, Edited By F.H. Froes, ASM International, 2015, p 95–112,

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