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Titanium alloys respond well to heat treatment be it to increase strength (age hardening), reduce residual stresses, or minimize tradeoffs in ductility, machinability, and dimensional and structural stability (annealing). This chapter describes the phase transformations associated with these processes, explaining how and why they occur and how they are typically controlled. It makes extensive use of phase diagrams and cooling curves to illustrate the effects of alloying and quenching on beta-to-alpha transformations and the conditions that produce metastable phases. It also examines several time-temperature-transformation diagrams, which account for the effect of cooling rate.

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