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This chapter describes the designations of carbon and low-alloy steels and their general characteristics in terms of their response to hardening and mechanical properties. The steels covered are low-carbon steels, higher manganese carbon steels, boron-treated carbon steels, H-steels, free-machining carbon steels, low-alloy manganese steels, low-alloy molybdenum steels, low-alloy chromium-molybdenum steels, low-alloy nickel-chromium-molybdenum steels, low-alloy nickel-molybdenum steels, low-alloy chromium steels, and low-alloy silicon-manganese steels. The chapter provides information on residual elements, microalloying, grain refinement, mechanical properties, and grain size of these steels. In addition, the effects of free-machining additives are also discussed.

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