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This chapter discusses the use of modeling and simulation technology in the development of sheet metal forming processes. It describes the five major steps involved in finite-element analysis and the various ways functions of interest can be approximated at each point or node in a finite-element mesh. It explains how to obtain input data, what to expect in terms of output data, and how to predict specific types of defects. In addition, it presents several case studies demonstrating the use of finite elements in blanking and piercing, deep drawing of round and rectangular cups, progressive die sequencing, blank holder force optimization, sheet hydroforming, hot stamping, and springback and bending of advanced high-strength steels. It also discusses the factors that affect the accuracy of finite element simulations such as springback, thickness variations, and nonisothermal effects.

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