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This chapter begins with a review of the mechanics of bending and the primary elements of a bending system. It examines stress-strain distributions defined by elementary bending theory and explains how to predict stress, strain, bending moment, and springback under various bending conditions. It describes the basic principles of air bending, stretch bending, and U- and V-die bending as well as rotary, roll, and wipe die bending, also known as straight flanging. It also discusses the steps involved in contour (stretch or shrink) flanging, hole flanging, and hemming and describes the design and operation of press brakes and other bending machines.

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