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This chapter describes the various types of cushion systems used in forming presses and their effect on part quality. It begins with a review of the deep drawing process, explaining that wrinkling, tearing, and fracture are the result of excess or insufficient material flow, which can be prevented by maintaining the correct amount of holding force on the periphery of the blank. It then describes how blank holding force is generated in double-action presses and the extent to which displacement profiles can be adjusted on both the inner and outer slides. The discussion then turns to single-action presses that incorporate some type of cushion system. The chapters describes the many ways that cushion systems are implemented in forming presses and the force and displacement characteristics achievable with each method. It also explains how multipoint cushion systems are designed and how they facilitate uniform metal flow into the die cavity of large deep-drawn parts.

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