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This chapter discusses the factors that influence the load-deformation relationship at the heart of most metal forming operations. It describes the changes that occur in tensile test samples and the various ways test data can be plotted and analyzed, particularly for design purposes. It discusses the effect of normal and planar anisotropy, the development and use of flow stress curves, and how formability is usually measured and expressed. It explains how formability measurements serve as a guide for process and tool design engineers as well as others. It also discusses the development and use of forming limit curves and the extensive amount of information they provide.

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