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This chapter discusses the processes, procedures, and equipment used in the production of iron, steel, aluminum, and titanium alloys. It describes the design and operation of melting and refining furnaces, including blast furnaces, basic oxygen and electric arc furnaces, vacuum induction melting furnaces, and electroslag and vacuum arc remelting furnaces. It also covers casting, rolling, and annealing procedures and describes the basic steps in aluminum and titanium production.

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