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This chapter discusses some of the methods and measurements used to construct phase diagrams. It explains how cooling curves were widely used to determine phase boundaries, and how equilibrated alloys examined under controlled heating and cooling provide information for constructing isothermal and vertical sections as well as liquid projections. It also explains how diffusion couples provide a window into local equilibria and identifies typical phase diagram construction errors along with problems stemming from phase-boundary curvatures and congruent transformations.

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