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This chapter provides a thorough introduction to the electrochemical thermodynamics that govern electrode reactions associated with corrosion. It begins with a review of the thermodynamic criteria for the stability of chemical reactions based on Gibbs free energy and explains how energies of formation are determined using the oxidation of iron as an example. It then considers how iron reacts with hydrochloric acid, explaining how it can be expressed as two half reactions modeled as electrodes in an electrochemical cell. It goes on to describe the chemical reactions occurring at each electrode, accounting for different variables, mechanisms, and electrochemical effects. The chapter concludes with an in-depth review of Pourbaix diagrams, explaining what they reveal about the stability of metal-water systems and the formation of corrosion products.

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Electrochemical Thermodynamics: The Gibbs Function, Electrochemical Reactions, and Equilibrium Potentials, Fundamentals of Electrochemical Corrosion, By E.E. Stansbury, R.A. Buchanan, ASM International, 2000, p 23–85,

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