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This appendix provides detailed information on design deficiencies, material and manufacturing defects, and service-life anomalies. It covers ingot-related defects, forging and sheet forming imperfections, casting defects, heat treating defects, and weld discontinuities. It shows how application life is affected by the severity of service conditions and discusses the consequences of using inappropriate materials.

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Defects Leading to Failure, Fatigue and Fracture: Understanding the Basics, Edited By F.C. Campbell, ASM International, 2012, p 585–632,

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