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This chapter discusses the causes and effects of ductile and brittle fracture and their key differences. It describes the characteristics of ductile fracture, explaining how microvoids develop and coalesce into larger cavities that are rapidly pulled apart, leaving bowl-shaped voids or dimples on each side of the fracture surface. It includes SEM images showing how the cavities form, how they progress to final failure, and how dimples vary in shape based on loading conditions. The chapter, likewise, describes the characteristics of brittle fracture, explaining why it occurs and how it appears under various levels of magnification. It also discusses the ductile-to-brittle transition observed in steel, the characteristics of intergranular fracture, and the causes of embrittlement.

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Ductile and Brittle Fracture, Fatigue and Fracture: Understanding the Basics, Edited By F.C. Campbell, ASM International, 2012, p 55–100,

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