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A tie rod on a 70-ton aircraft towing tractor failed during a test run, fracturing near a welded bracket that connects to a hydraulic jack. This chapter discusses the failure and the investigation that followed. It presents a close-up view of the fracture surface showing what appears to be a brittle fracture that initiated from a zone of poor-quality weld. It also provides photographic evidence of a weld crack in the heat-affected zone and includes a drawing of a modified weld design that passed subsequent testing.

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Failure of a Tie-Rod in an Aircraft Towing Tractor, Failure Analysis of Engineering Structures: Methodology and Case Histories, By V. Ramachandran, A.C. Raghuram, R.V. Krishnan, S.K. Bhaumik, ASM International, 2005, p 80–81,

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