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This chapter describes the methods and equipment applicable to metallographic studies and discusses the preparation of specimens for examination by light optical microscopy. Five major operations for preparation of metallographic specimens are discussed: sectioning, mounting, grinding, polishing, and etching. The discussion covers their basic principles, advantages, types, and applications, as well as the equipment setup. The chapter includes tables that list etchants used for microscopic examination. It also provides information on microscopic examination, microphotography, and the effects of grain size on the structural properties of the material.

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