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This article discusses the production, properties, and uses of high-alloy white irons. It explains how the composition and melt are controlled to produce a large volume of eutectic carbides, making these irons particularly hard and resistant to wear, and how the metallic matrix supporting the carbide phase can be adjusted via alloy content and heat treatment to optimize the balance between abrasion resistance and impact toughness. It also describes the effect of alloying elements and inoculants on various properties and behaviors and provides information on commercial alloy grades and applications.

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