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This article covers the metallurgy and properties of gray irons. It describes the classes or grades of gray iron, the types of applications for which they are suited, and the corresponding compositional ranges. It discusses the role of major, minor, and trace elements, how they are added, and how they affect various properties, behaviors, and processing characteristics. It explains how silicon, chromium, and nickel, in particular, improve high-temperature, corrosion, and wear performance.

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