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This chapter discusses the effect of composition and cooling rate on the microstructure and properties of cast irons and explains how they differ from steel. It describes the conditions under which white, gray, mottled (chilled), and nodular (ductile) cast irons are produced, and examines the growth mechanisms and structural details that set them apart. It also discusses the formation of compacted (vermicular) graphite and malleable iron, and compares and contrasts the composition, properties, and heat treatment of whiteheart and blackheart malleable types.

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Cast Irons, Metallography of Steels: Interpretation of Structure and the Effects of Processing, By Hubertus Colpaert;Edited By André Luiz V. da Costa e Silva, ASM International, 2018, p 583–665,

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