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This chapter examines the microstructure of special bar quality (or engineering) steels and how it is influenced by carbon content, tempering temperature, and prior austenitic grain size. It explains how some of the changes are difficult to detect and require special etching and/or measurement techniques. It provides information on many types of engineering steel, including medium and high-carbon steels used in rail applications. It also examines the effect of nickel-phosphorus coatings on stainless steel and phosphate coatings used to reduce friction during thread rolling and other such procedures.

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