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This chapter discusses the effects of hot working on the structure and properties of steel. It explains how working steels at high temperatures promotes diffusion, which helps close cavities and pores, and how it changes the shape and distribution of segregates, offsetting their effect. It describes the effect of hot working on nonmetallic inclusions and the many properties influenced by them. It discusses the recrystallization mechanism by which hot working produces microstructural changes and explains how to control it by adjusting temperature, degree of reduction, and cooling rates. It describes special cases of segregation, including banding and why it occurs, and the application of closed die forging. The chapter also presents several examples of hot working defects, including forging laps, cracks, and overheated or burned steel.

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Hot Working, Metallography of Steels: Interpretation of Structure and the Effects of Processing, By Hubertus Colpaert;Edited By André Luiz V. da Costa e Silva, ASM International, 2018, p 353–402,

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