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This chapter provides a practical understanding of heat treatments and how to employ them to optimize the properties and structures of cast irons and steels. It discusses annealing, normalizing, quenching, tempering, patenting, carburizing, nitriding, carbonitriding, and nitrocarburizing. It describes the primary objectives of each treatment along with processing sequences, process parameters, and related phase transformations. The chapter contains more than 100 images, including time-temperature diagrams, transformation curves, data plots, and detailed micro- and macrographs. It also discusses the concepts of hardenability, critical diameter, quench severity, and Jominy testing.

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Conventional Heat Treatment—Basic Concepts, Metallography of Steels: Interpretation of Structure and the Effects of Processing, By Hubertus Colpaert;Edited By André Luiz V. da Costa e Silva, ASM International, 2018, p 273–352,

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