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Many of the structural characteristics of steel products are a result of changes that occur during solidification, particularly volume contractions and solute redistribution. This chapter discusses the solidification process and how it affects the quality and behaviors of steel. It explains how steel shrinks as it solidifies, causing issues such as pipe and voids, and how differences in the solubility of solid and liquid steel lead to compositional heterogeneities or segregation. It describes the dendritic nature of solidification, peritectic and eutectic reactions, microporosity, macro- and microsegregation, and hot cracking, as well as the effects of solidification and remelting on castings, ingots, and continuous cast products. It explains how to determine where defects originate in continuous casters and how to control alumina, sulfide, and nitride inclusions.

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Solidification, Segregation, and Nonmetallic Inclusions, Metallography of Steels: Interpretation of Structure and the Effects of Processing, By Hubertus Colpaert;Edited By André Luiz V. da Costa e Silva, ASM International, 2018, p 129–191,

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