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This chapter discusses the use of electron microscopy in metallographic analysis. It explains how electrons interact with metals and how these interactions can be harnessed to produce two- and three-dimensional images of metal surfaces and generate crystallographic and compositional data as well. It discusses the basic design and operating principles of scanning electron microscopes, transmission electron microscopes, and scanning transmission electron microscopes and how they are typically used. It describes the additional information contained in backscattered electrons and emitted x-rays and the methods used to access it, namely wavelength and energy dispersive spectroscopy and electron backscattering diffraction techniques. It also describes the role of focused ion beam milling in sample preparation and provides information on atom probes, atomic force microscopes, and laser scanning microscopes.

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