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This chapter discusses the foundational principles of materials science. It begins with a review of the periodic table and the fundamental particles, including atoms, ions, and molecules, that constitute matter. It also reviews the types of bonds that form between atoms and the relative levels of force they produce. It describes the difference between crystalline and noncrystalline or amorphous materials and discusses common crystal structures, including face-centered cubic, body-centered cubic, hexagonal close packed, and diamond cubic. It also describes the structure of sodium chloride and includes a list of structurally similar compounds.

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