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This chapter provides information on various contributors to failure of carburized and carbonitrided components, with the primary focus on carburized components. The most common contributors covered include component design, selection of proper hardenability, increased residual stress, dimensional stability, and generation of quenching and grinding cracks. They also include insufficient case hardness and improper core hardness, influence of surface carbon content and grain size, internal oxidation, structure of carbides, and inclusion of noncarbide. Details on micropitting, macropitting, case crushing, pitting corrosion, and partial melting are also provided.

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