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This chapter describes cast steel features that may be identified or attributed to component failure during heat treatment or subsequent processing or service, namely porosity (generated by the presence of gas as well as by shrinkage pores), decarburization, cold joint, and inclusions.

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Omar Maluf, Luciana Sgarbi Rossino, Camilo Bento Carletti, Celso Roberto Ribeiro, Clever Ricardo Chinaglia, José Eduardo May, Failures from the Casting Process, Failure Analysis of Heat Treated Steel Components, Edited By Lauralice de C.F. Canale, Rafael A. Mesquita, George E. Totten, ASM International, 2008, p 151–176,

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