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This chapter reviews various ways to classify failure categories and summarizes the basic types, causes, and mechanisms of damage, with particular consideration given to whether the likelihood of the types of damage can or cannot be influenced by the heat treating of steel parts. The classical organization for types of damage (failures) is as follows: deformation, fracture, wear, corrosion or other environmental damage, and multiple or complex damage. The chapter also provides some examples of lack of conformance to specification that may at first look like the heat treater did something wrong, but where other contributing factors made it difficult or impossible for the heat treater to meet the specification.

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Debbie Aliya, Mechanisms and Causes of Failures in Heat Treated Steel Parts, Failure Analysis of Heat Treated Steel Components, Edited By Lauralice de C.F. Canale, Rafael A. Mesquita, George E. Totten, ASM International, 2008, p 87–109,

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