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This chapter elucidates the indispensable role of characterization in the development of cold-sprayed coatings and illustrates some of the common processes used during coatings development. Emphasis is placed on the advanced microstructural characterization techniques that are used in high-pressure cold spray coating characterization, including residual-stress characterization. The chapter includes some preliminary screening of tool hardness and bond adhesion strength, as well as a distinction between surface and bulk characterization techniques and their importance for cold spray coatings. The techniques covered are optical microscopy, X-Ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, focused ion beam machining, electron probe microanalysis, transmission electron microscopy, and electron backscattered diffraction. The techniques also include electron channeling contrast imaging, X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence, Auger electron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, oxygen analysis, and nanoindentation.

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