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This article covers common techniques for surface characterization, including the modern scanning electron microscopy and methods for the chemical characterization of surfaces by Auger electron spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry. The principles of surface analysis and some of the applications of the technique in polymer failure studies are also provided.

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Surface Analysis, Characterization and Failure Analysis of Plastics, Edited By Steven Lampman, ASM International, 2003, p 383–403,

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