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This chapter discusses the principles of scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) as implemented using conventional scanning electron microscopes (SEMs). It describes the pros and cons of low-energy imaging and diffraction, addresses basic hardware requirements, and provides information on imaging modes, detector positioning and alignment, and the effect of contrast reversal. It also discusses beam convergence and angular selectivity, the use of application-specific masks, and how to generate grain orientation maps for different material systems.

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