Superalloys: A Technical Guide (Second Edition)
Chapter 4: Melting and Conversion
This chapter discusses the melting and conversion of superalloys and the solidification challenges they present. Superalloys have high solute content which can lead to untreatable defects if they solidify too slowly. These defects, called freckles, are highly detrimental to fatigue life. The chapter explains how and why freckles form as well as how they can be prevented. It describes the criteria for selecting the proper melting method for specific alloys based on melt segregation and chemistry requirements. It compares standard processes, including electric arc furnace/argon oxygen decarburization melting, vacuum induction melting, vacuum arc remelting, and electroslag remelting. It also addresses related issues such as consumable remelt quality, control anomalies, melt pool characteristics, and melt-related defects, and includes a section that discusses the processes involved in converting cast ingots into mill products.
Melting and Conversion, Superalloys: A Technical Guide, 2nd ed., By Matthew J. Donachie, Stephen J. Donachie, ASM International, 2002, p 41–77, https://doi.org/10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280041
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