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This chapter describes the metallurgy of superalloys and the extent to which it can be controlled. It discusses the alloying elements, crystal structures, and processing sequences associated with more than a dozen phases that largely determine the characteristics of superalloys, including their properties, behaviors, and microstructure. It examines the role of more than 20 alloying elements, including phosphorus (promotes carbide precipitation), boron (improves creep properties), lanthanum (increases hot corrosion resistance), and carbon and tungsten which serve as matrix stabilizers. It explains how precipitates provide strength by impeding deformation under load. It also discusses the factors that influence grain size, shape, and orientation and how they can be controlled to optimize mechanical and physical properties.

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Understanding Superalloy Metallurgy, Superalloys: A Technical Guide, 2nd ed., By Matthew J. Donachie, Stephen J. Donachie, ASM International, 2002, p 25–39,

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