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This chapter examines the effects of welding on the structure of metal, particularly the changes induced in the isothermal regions adjacent to the weld. It presents more than 150 images identifying structures and features associated with fusion and solid-state welding processes, including electroslag, TIG, gas, electron-beam, and arc welding as well as vacuum diffusion, forge, friction, electrical-resistance, and explosive welding. It also discusses the effect of welding temperature, pressure, and composition on the transformations that occur in and around the weld, and it includes a short section on brazing and braze welding.

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