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This chapter examines the microstructure and properties of annealed and normalized steels containing more than 0.25% carbon. It shows, using detailed micrographs, how incrementally higher levels of carbon affect the structure and distribution of pearlite and how it intermingles with proeutectoid ferrite and cementite. It explains how ferrite and pearlite respond to deformation and how related features such as slip lines, dislocations, shear bands, and kinking can be detected as well as what they reveal. It also describes the structure of patented wires, cast steels, and sintered steels and the morphology of manganese sulfide inclusions in castings.

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Steels in the Annealed and Normalized Conditions, Light Microscopy of Carbon Steels, By Leonard E. Samuels, ASM International, 1999, p 125–163,

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