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Several specialized instruments are available for the metallographer to use as tools to gather key information on the characteristics of the microstructure being analyzed. These include microscopes that use electrons as a source of illumination instead of light and x-ray diffraction equipment. This chapter describes how these instruments can be used to gather important information about a microstructure. The instruments covered include image analyzers, transmission electron microscopes, scanning electron microscopes, electron probe microanalyzers, scanning transmission electron microscopes, x-ray diffractometers, microhardness testers, and hot microhardness testers. A list of other instruments that are usually located in a research laboratory or specialized testing laboratory is also provided.

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The Expanded Metallographic Laboratory, Metallographer’s Guide: Practices and Procedures for Irons and Steels, By Bruce L. Bramfitt, Arlan O. Benscoter, ASM International, 2002, p 149–168,

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