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Mechanical components often require surface treatments to meet application demands. This chapter describes several surface hardening treatments for steel and their effect on microstructure, composition, and properties. It discusses flame hardening, induction heating, carburizing, nitriding, carbonitriding, and nitrocarburizing. The discussion on carburizing addresses several interrelated factors, including processing principles, alloying, surface oxidation, residual stresses, bending fatigue, contact fatigue, and fracture.

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Surface Hardening, Steels: Processing, Structure, and Performance, 2nd ed., By George Krauss, ASM International, 2015, p 499–549,

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