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Medium-carbon steels are typically hardened for high-strength, high-fatigue-resistant applications by austenitizing, quenching to martensite, and tempering. This chapter explains how microalloying with vanadium, niobium, and/or titanium provides an alternate way to improve the mechanical properties of such steels. It also addresses microalloyed forging steels and explains how nontraditional bainitic microstructures can be produced by direct cooling after forging.

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Non-Martensitic Strengthening of Medium-Carbon Steels—Microalloying and Bainitic Strengthening, Steels: Processing, Structure, and Performance, 2nd ed., By George Krauss, ASM International, 2015, p 293–314,

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