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This chapter describes heat treatments that produce uniform grain structures, reduce residual stresses, and improve ductility and machinability. It also discusses spheroidizing treatments that improve strength and toughness by promoting dispersions of spherical carbides in a ferrite matrix. The chapter concludes with a brief discussion on the mechanical properties of ferrite/pearlite microstructures in medium-carbon steels.

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Normalizing, Annealing, and Spheroidizing Treatments; Ferrite/Pearlite and Spherical Carbides, Steels: Processing, Structure, and Performance, 2nd ed., By George Krauss, ASM International, 2015, p 277–291,

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