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Inclusions and chemical segregation are factors in many process-induced failures involving steel parts. Inclusions are nonmetallic compounds introduced during production; segregation is a type of chemical partitioning that occurs during solidification. This chapter discusses the origins of segregation and inclusions and their effect on the mechanical properties and microstructure of steel. It explains how to identify various types of inclusions and characteristic segregation patterns, such as banding. It also describes the effect of hot work processing on solidification structure and the chemical variations produced by interdendritic segregation.

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Primary Processing Effects on Steel Microstructure and Properties, Steels: Processing, Structure, and Performance, 2nd ed., By George Krauss, ASM International, 2015, p 163–196,

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