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This chapter describes the ferritic microstructures that form in carbon steels under continuous cooling conditions. It begins with a review of the Dubé classification system for crystal morphologies. It then explains how cooling-rate-induced changes involving carbon atom diffusion and the associated rearrangement of iron atoms produce the wide variety of morphologies and microstructures observed in ferrite. The chapter also describes a classification system developed specifically for ferritic microstructures and uses it to compare common forms of ferrite, including polygonal or equiaxed ferrite, Widmanstatten ferrite, quasi-polygonal or massive ferrite, acicular ferrite, and granular ferrite.

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Ferritic Microstructures, Steels: Processing, Structure, and Performance, 2nd ed., By George Krauss, ASM International, 2015, p 113–131,

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