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Bainite is an intermediate temperature transformation product of austenite. This chapter describes the conditions under which bainite is likely to form. It discusses the effects of alloying on bainitic transformation, the difference between upper and lower bainite, and the influence of solute drag on bainite formation mechanisms. It also discusses the development of ferrite-carbide bainites and their effect on toughness, hardness, and ductility.

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Bainite, Steels: Processing, Structure, and Performance, 2nd ed., By George Krauss, ASM International, 2015, p 99–112,

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