Most modern instrumental techniques produce an output or signal that is not absolute. To obtain quantitative information, the raw output from an instrument must be converted into a physical quantity. This is done by standardizing or calibrating the raw response from an instrument and subsequently analyzing the uncertainty from both the calibration process and the measurement process. This article briefly summarizes the most common calibration and uncertainty analysis methods, namely external standard methods, abbreviated external standard methods, internal normalization, internal standard, standard addition, and serial dilution methods. In addition, it includes information on the traceability of true value of a measured quantity.
Thomas J. Bruno, Calibration and Experimental Uncertainty, Materials Characterization, Vol 10, 2019 ed., ASM Handbook, ASM International, 2019, p 195–200, https://doi.org/10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006634
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