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indentation

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Proceedings Papers

ITSC 2021, Thermal Spray 2021: Proceedings from the International Thermal Spray Conference, 386-395, May 24–28, 2021,
...Abstract Abstract This study developed microstructure-based finite element (FE) models to investigate the behavior of cold-sprayed aluminum-alumina (Al-Al2O3) metal matrix composite (MMCs) coatings subject to indentation and quasi-static compression. Based on microstructural features (i.e...
Proceedings Papers

ITSC 2002, Thermal Spray 2002: Proceedings from the International Thermal Spray Conference, 610-616, March 4–6, 2002,
...Abstract Abstract Fracture mechanical properties of metallic, thermally sprayed layers made of NiCr, NiCrAlY, molybdenum, and NiCrBSi were characterized using an indentation process close to the edge, known as edge chipping. Thermally sprayed layers were assessed according to their relative...
Proceedings Papers

ITSC2000, Thermal Spray 2000: Proceedings from the International Thermal Spray Conference, 245-250, May 8–11, 2000,
... coatings. In this study, Vickers indentation tests have been used to quantify the in-plane fracture behavior of various WC-based coatings deposited by the High Velocity Oxy-Fuel (HVOF) spray process. The indentation cracks are analyzed in terms of standardized relations that utilize radial-median crack...
Proceedings Papers

ITSC1997, Thermal Spray 1997: Proceedings from the United Thermal Spray Conference, 757-762, September 15–18, 1997,
...Abstract Abstract A technique has been developed to characterize the elastic modulus of zirconium oxide - 8 % yttrium oxide plasma sprayed deposits. A commercial hardness indenter has been modified to record load - displacement as a spherical ball is elastically loaded onto the surface...
Proceedings Papers

ITSC1996, Thermal Spray 1996: Proceedings from the National Thermal Spray Conference, 835-840, October 7–11, 1996,
...Abstract Abstract Mechanical properties of water stabilized plasma spray-formed Al 2 O 3 -13wt%TiO 2 have been investigated by using indentation techniques and a four-point bend test. Young's modulus was determined by four point bend, nano- and Knoop indentation tests. Modulus of rupture...
Proceedings Papers

ITSC2000, Thermal Spray 2000: Proceedings from the International Thermal Spray Conference, 57-61, May 8–11, 2000,
... blasting) and coating deposition in a single step. Coating adhesion was measured via tensile testing and an indentation method, and the rupture areas (along with some of the coating-substrate interfaces) were examined using SEM techniques. The results show that with the new process chemical...
Proceedings Papers

ITSC2000, Thermal Spray 2000: Proceedings from the International Thermal Spray Conference, 157-163, May 8–11, 2000,
... deposition temperature resulted in dramatic improvement in coating thermal conductivity and hardness as well as increase in coating oxygen content. Indentation reveals improved fracture resistance for the coatings prepared at higher deposition temperature. Residual stress was significantly affected...
Proceedings Papers

ITSC2000, Thermal Spray 2000: Proceedings from the International Thermal Spray Conference, 625-633, May 8–11, 2000,
..., mechanical properties, and biocompatibility. Both composite coatings performed better than pure HA coatings in tensile adhesion and indentation tests. Testing also revealed that the HA/Y-ZrO2 coatings had favorable strength and fracture toughness and that the HA/Ti-6Al-4V coatings had good affinity to living...
Proceedings Papers

ITSC 2002, Thermal Spray 2002: Proceedings from the International Thermal Spray Conference, 598-605, March 4–6, 2002,
... because of the limited coating thickness, their brittleness and the very inhomogeneous microstructure consisting of nonequilibrium phases, oxidation products, cracks, and pores. Two different investigations routines were performed, first the investigation of the influence of the indentation load...
Proceedings Papers

ITSC2000, Thermal Spray 2000: Proceedings from the International Thermal Spray Conference, 1345-1354, May 8–11, 2000,
... reproducibilit) of the hardness statistics generated was low porositv. Carbide grain size is of the order of single ascertained b\ ha\ing different persomiel measuring the microns. The XRD spectrum for die coating sample (figure same sets of indents. 1.) and EDS analysis show that coating consists of WC...
Proceedings Papers

ITSC1997, Thermal Spray 1997: Proceedings from the United Thermal Spray Conference, 723-729, September 15–18, 1997,
... used for probing mechanical properties of materials such as thin films, nano materials Nanoindentation tests (Nano Indenter® II, Oak and ultrafine structures on the submicrometer scale.1'5 Ridge, TN) were performed on the polished cross-section Only a limited number of nanoindentation studies...
Proceedings Papers

ITSC 2002, Thermal Spray 2002: Proceedings from the International Thermal Spray Conference, 107-111, March 4–6, 2002,
...: Dynamic indentation test sented in Table 1. PARAMETERS DESCRIPTION Table 1: Plasma spray parameters Diamond indenter Pyramidal type Included angle 120 degrees PARAMETERS DESCRIPTION Tip radius 5 microns Power 40 kW Frequency 20 kHz Voltage 36 V Amplitude 50 microns Current 800 A Impact duration 300 s...
Proceedings Papers

ITSC 2021, Thermal Spray 2021: Proceedings from the International Thermal Spray Conference, 256-260, May 24–28, 2021,
... mN·sec-1, while the results analyzed by using capture dislocations energy effects within a material Equation 1. In this regard, the following materials were deformation gradient region. In this regard, during the used for evaluation: (i.) spherical copper powder (155A hardness indentation test at quasi...
Proceedings Papers

ITSC1998, Thermal Spray 1998: Proceedings from the International Thermal Spray Conference, 1387-1392, May 25–29, 1998,
... The coatings were investigated with been carried out . For example, trials relating to "production - optical microscopy, of duplex coatings through process combination thermal - Vickers indentations on cross-section coating under a load spraying / nitriding " have been performed in order to in- of 300 g...
Proceedings Papers

ITSC1996, Thermal Spray 1996: Proceedings from the National Thermal Spray Conference, 921-926, October 7–11, 1996,
... coating was microhardness of coatings, the best method to date compiled. Standard procedures were followed for is the use of a manual hardness tester. Hardness hardness determinations of thermally sprayed indentations can be placed in selected areas on both dense and porous coatings producing relatively...
Proceedings Papers

ITSC 2021, Thermal Spray 2021: Proceedings from the International Thermal Spray Conference, 31-35, May 24–28, 2021,
... dimensions (mm) 6.7 3 P= indentation load (N) A, Length a= half of the diagonal indent length ( m) B, Width c= crack length from the center of the indent ( m) C, Thickness A Vickers microhardness test was performed to estimate A bilinear plastic model with temperature-dependent properties coating fracture...
Proceedings Papers

ITSC2000, Thermal Spray 2000: Proceedings from the International Thermal Spray Conference, 851-858, May 8–11, 2000,
... microscopy (SEM). Note that many of the microstructure of the resulting coatings. following SEM micrographs were imaged using backscattered electrons to better highlight compositional variations. Table 1. Plasma arc spraying parameters and labels. Coating hardness was measured with a Vickers indenter Spray...
Proceedings Papers

ITSC1997, Thermal Spray 1997: Proceedings from the United Thermal Spray Conference, 277-284, September 15–18, 1997,
...< infiltrate the coatings with mercury. The low pressure part of this mercury porosimeter (0.1 kPa-400 kPa) allowed the x/L measurement of large pores up to a radius of 58 (im and the high pressure side (0.1 MPa - 400 MPa) was used to measure axisymmetric FEM model small pores down to 1.8 nm. The second method was an image analysis technique performed on a KONTRON KS 300um Zifo MCrAlY 400 system. 1.50mm| 10L0umrn IN738 S Elastic Modulus. The elastic modulus was measured with applying an instrumented, depth-sensing micro- 15.00mm indentation tests [3] [4] made on a FISCHERSCOPE H100 (maximum possible load 1 N). This device recorded the applied load simultaneously with the penetration of a diamond into the material. The elastic response of the material during the initiation of unloading was used to determine the mean elastic modulus, boundary conditions E*=E/(l-v2) (1) with E=Young's Modulus, and v=Poisson's Ratio. The Sttttfflfflfflfflfflltffll indentation tests were performed on the same polished cross sections that were used to evaluate the microstructure. fixed Fig. 1: Specimen, FEM-model and FEM-boundaiy Annealing. For the investigations of changes in the conditions for cyclic oxidation test (beveled edge: x/L=0; Zirconia microstructure due to sintering, TBC-specimens free edge: x/L=l). were annealed in an air atmosphere furnace at 1100°C for 2h,50handl00h. Elastic deformation and temperature dependent creep of the substrate, bond coat, and the Zirconia were taken into Cyclic Oxidation and Finite Element Analysis. In an account. Because the elastic and plastic properties of the air atmosphere furnace, TBC coated IN 738 specimens (see Fig. 1) were heated to 1100° C within 2 minutes and then Table I: Varying plasma spraying parameters for the investigated Zirconia coatings: spray parameters coating 1 coating 2 coating 3 coating 4 powder Amperit 827.090 Amperit 827.090 Metco 204-B NS Metco 204-B NS particle size -45+10^m -45+lOym -75+45^im -75+45|xm powder injection outside nozzle, 6mm inside nozzle, 7mm outside nozzle, 6mm outside nozzle, 6mm power input [kW] 42 48 50 50 pri./sec. gas [slpm] 35Ar/12H2 35Ar/10H2 41Ar/10H2 45Ar/15H2 carrier gas flow [slpm] 2,6 2,0 3,6 3,6 175 100 100 stand-off distance [mm] 120 278 sprayed coating. For all of the investigated coatings, this 2 fraction increased the absolute porosity level by 6%. Because of their size, these microcracks cannot be represented within 1 the image analysis porosity measurements, even if the ribbons and very small lines are included into the pore ~0 fraction. 4305-nL1 -i -1 § IT30- coatingl 1 n1 D coat.l 1A0 coat.2 pl 1 125 coating3 [X?L\ P °A coat.3 O i III i& HTMI " " T T / S rnnt 4. Uo Mr 20 NmTi I i 15 11 Pfackt 1 11A 50 60 70 8090100 150 200 10 1 LJL 5 if 1 pflffipf 1 \ | E/(l-v2) [GPa] 01 IIIIII i ir y§ Fig. 4: Weibull plot of the measured elastic constants (maximal indentation load = IN) of 4 different Zirconia 0,01 0,1 1 10 100 coatings. pore radius [um] Fig. 3: Hg-Porosity: Cumulative pore volume with Table III: Weibull parameter, m, and mean elastic modulus, increasing pore radius for two different Zirconia coatings. E*, of 4 different Zirconia coatings. Elastic Modulus of as-sprayed coatings. Porous coat. 1 coat. 2 coat. 3 coat.4 plasma-sprayed coatings always have an inhomogeneous and anisotropic microstructure. This inhomogeneity is E/(l-v2) [GPa] 106±5 99±6 133±4 108±8 responsible for a decrease in the mean value of the elastic modulus as well as for a scattering of the local elastic Weibull Parameter m 9±2 6±2 13±4 5±2 modulus while the anisotropy results in direction dependent elastic modulus. For example, the elastic modulus measured Microcracks and small pores cause a decrease of the perpendicular to the coating surface (30 GPa) can be half of elastic constant only to a certain extent. Additionally, large the value measured in a cross section of the same coating pores are responsible for a second reduction of the elastic (70 GPa), [7]. constant to the measured level. If these large pores are much larger than the diameter of the indention (which was 14 Because of this scattering, twenty measurements were u,m), they contribute less to the decrease of E* than the small performed in the cross section (parallel to the coating) for pores. This explains the high value of the mean elastic each coating. The results are presented in a statistical way constant, E*, for coating 3. The microstructure of coating 3 using a Weibull-plot as seen in Fig. 4. Each series in the plot (Fig. 2) revealed a large fraction of pores with diameters is represented by a different symbol. The section of line" above 40u,m (r>20u,m) and thus much larger than the corresponding with indentation diameter. Further reinforcement of this argument is provided by Fig. 3. A larger fraction of pores y=ln(ln(l/(l-F0 (2) with higher pore radii was found in coating 3 compared to coating 1. In order to overcome the problems involved...
Proceedings Papers

ITSC1998, Thermal Spray 1998: Proceedings from the International Thermal Spray Conference, 1409-1413, May 25–29, 1998,
... / in the range of 500 \\m for the latter average value. laser Adhesion Tests. To determine the bond strength of the f \' beam coating to the substrate, the standard ASTM C633-79 tensile adhesion test (TAT) [6],and the interfacial indentation test [7] were implemented. Microstructure Characterization. Optical...
Proceedings Papers

ITSC1998, Thermal Spray 1998: Proceedings from the International Thermal Spray Conference, 1449-1453, May 25–29, 1998,
...°. 260 mm Fig. 3 Spray conditions for the Cu- and the Ni/Al- Wear test / hardening measuring. coating For the mentioned coatings the determination of the abrasive wear resistance is a powerful characterization Electron beam treatment. method. This wear mechanism is based on the indentation The parameters...