In thermal spraying of metal-polymer coatings, the processes of polymers oxidation and destruction can have special features, as the temperature of heating of the filler particles can significantly exceed the temperature of destruction of the polymer binder. Hence, the need to study the features of the process of formation of thermal sprayed coatings from filled polymers and their physico-chemical, mechanical and service properties. This paper describes the influence of a filler composition and conditions of flame spraying on a structure and mechanical properties of composite polymer coatings. It is observed that addition of 5-10 vol. % of Fe-Ni-B alloy powder to low-pressure polyethylene polymer matrices, improves the wear resistance of thermal sprayed coatings 1.2-1.3 times under the conditions of gas-abrasive wear, compared to purely polymer coating, owing to the combination of the higher hardness of the coating with the high damping properties of the polymer matrix.