Flame-sprayed coatings of alumina were produced by an oxyacetylene flame spray system in order to study the phase transformations that occurs on alumina during the spraying. The X-ray diffraction pattern of the alumina powder to be sprayed, showed the main presence of the stable phase alpha alumina and an impurity probably resulting from the process of purification of alumina. For as-sprayed coatings, phase changes occur. The X-ray diffraction pattern shows the presence of the stable form alpha alumina, but also the metastable form gamma alumina and amorphous alumina. True density measurements were done using a helium pycnometer, as an aid to observe the phase transformations. The density of the powder to be sprayed was 3.98 g/cm3 and the density of the as-sprayed coatings was 3.62 g/cm3. This change of density is linked to the phase transformation during spraying. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the incident particles was made after 1 second of deposition onto glass substrates in order to observe the degree of melting of the incident particles, by analyzing their profiles (degree of flattening).