This study developed microstructure-based finite element (FE) models to investigate the behavior of cold-sprayed aluminum-alumina (Al-Al2O3) metal matrix composite (MMCs) coatings subject to indentation and quasi-static compression. Based on microstructural features (i.e.; particle weight fraction; particle size; and porosity) of the MMC coatings; representative volume elements (RVEs) were generated by using Digimat software and then imported into ABAQUS/Explicit. State-of-the-art physics-based modelling approaches were incorporated into the model to account for particle cracking; interface debonding; and ductile failure of the matrix. This allowed for analysis and informing on the deformation and failure responses. The model was validated with experimental results for cold-sprayed Al-18 wt.% Al2O3; Al-34 wt.% Al2O3; and Al-46 wt.% Al2O3 metal matrix composite coatings under quasi-static compression by comparing the stress versus strain histories and observed failure mechanisms (e.g.; matrix ductile failure). The results showed that the computational framework is able to capture the response of this cold-sprayed material system under compression and indentation; both qualitatively and quantitatively. The outcomes of this work have implications for extending the model to materials design and under different types of loading (e.g.; erosion and fatigue).