Abstract

The generation of a high velocity carrier gas flow for cold metal particle applications is addressed; with specific focus on titanium cold spraying. The high hardness of this material makes cold spraying titanium difficult to achieve by industry standard nozzles. The redesign of a commercial conical convergent-divergent cold spray nozzle is achieved by the application of aerospace design codes; based on the Method of Characteristics; towards producing a more isentropic expansion by contouring the nozzle walls. Steady threedimensional RANS SST k-ω simulations of nitrogen are coupled two-way to particle parcel tracking in the Lagrangian frame of reference. The new contoured nozzle is found to produce higher particle velocities with greater radial spread; when operated at the same conditions/cost of operation as the commercial nozzle. These numerical results have shown the potential for extending cold spray to high density and low ductility particles by relatively minor rig modifications; through an effective synergy between gas dynamics and material science.

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