In high-pressure cold spray, the enthalpy of the particle carrier gas has a significant effect on the propellant gas conditions and ultimately on particle impact velocities and temperatures. Through modelling and experimentation, the current work demonstrates that in low-pressure cold spray, the particle carrier gas enthalpy has a minimal effect on the particle velocity and is rather limited to affecting the particle impact temperature. Consequently, particle impact temperature can be controlled independently from impact velocity. This is a valuable tool when dealing with temperature sensitive substrates: low propellant temperatures can be used in combination with high particle temperatures enabling particle deformation while minimizing substrate heat input. Particle preheating was used to inject pure aluminum particles in a commercial low-pressure cold spray to temperatures up to 500°C. This was accomplished without clogging because of the development of a novel particle preheater, which eliminated the particles exposure to hot metal surfaces. Even after substantial spray time, no evidence of wear or clogging was found. The particle preheating resulted in a deposition efficiency increase of 3.6 times when compared to the injection of room temperature particles.

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