Three YSZ powders with different particle size distributions and an ethanol-based YSZ suspension were deposited on steel substrates using a cascaded plasma torch with a 9 mm nozzle. Coatings with dense, porous, segmented, and columnar microstructures were achieved by varying process parameters such as gun current, argon flow rate, spray distance, and suspension injection pressure. Linear relationships between in-flight particle state and process variables were observed and are shown to correlate well with coating structure and porosity.

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