The aim of this study is to determine how various factors, including process parameters and nozzle configurations, affect the shape and size of the spray jet in twin wire arc spraying. In the experiments, steel specimens were sprayed using an iron-based cored wire with a fused tungsten carbide filling. In-flight particle temperature and velocity and fluctuations in voltage and current were measured during spraying. The shape of the thermal spray spot and the 3D footprint of the plume were determined by means of image analysis and tactile surface profiling methods. The results obtained show that spray plume characteristics, and thus particle distribution, are heavily influenced by secondary gas flow, particularly the number, location, and angle of atomization outlet holes in the secondary gas nozzle.

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