Analytical correlations between the flattening characteristics and the Reynolds number and the spraying angle are obtained. The final splat thickness is shown to decrease and the final splat radius is found to vary nonuniformly with a decrease in the spraying angle. Analytical formulae are obtained describing the pressure distribution in a flattening droplet along the droplet-substrate interface during thermal spraying at off-normal angles. The magnitudes of droplet-substrate microadhesion, deformation of the substrate surface and the coating porosity depend upon the spraying angle. The spraying angle 45° can be recommended as a reasonable limit for off-normal thermal spraying for achieving the quality coatings. The theoretical results obtained on flattening characteristics agree with those of the experimentally observed tendencies of thermal spraying at off-normal angles. The theoretical results for % relative porosity are in a reasonable agreement with experimental observations at off-normal angles between 30° and 90°.

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